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Edgar Myshkin
Edgar Myshkin

Bonnet Monkey [CRACKED]

The bonnet macaque (Macaca radiata ), also known as zati, is a species of macaque endemic to southern India. Its distribution is limited by the Indian Ocean on three sides and the Godavari and Tapti Rivers, along with its related competitor the rhesus macaque in the north. Land use changes in the last few decades have resulted in changes in its distribution boundaries with the rhesus macaque, raising concern for its status in the wild.

bonnet monkey


The bonnet macaque feeds on fruits, nuts, seeds, flowers, invertebrates, and cereals. In southern India, this macaque exists as commensal to humans, feeding on food given by humans and raiding crops and houses.

This Old World monkey is endemic exclusively to India. The Bonnet macaque is so called because of exhibiting a cap-like coil of fur on its head that points outward from the center. The overall coloration of this animal is dusky brown to golden yellow with red face as well as black ears and lower lip.

An internal fragment (978 bp) corresponding to the bonnet monkey (Macaca radiata) ZP3, excluding the N-terminus signal sequence and the C-terminus transmembrane-like domain, was amplified by PCR from a full-length cDNA clone. The amplified Bam HI and SacI restricted fragment was cloned in frame downstream of the T5 promoter under lac operator control for expression in the pQE-30 vector. Recombinant ZP3 (r-ZP3) was expressed as a poly-histidine fusion protein in E. coli strains SG13009[pREP4] and BL-21(DE3). Immunoblot with a murine monoclonal antibody, MA-451 (raised against porcine ZP3 beta-a homologue of bonnet ZP3, and cross-reactive with bonnet zona pellucida) revealed a predominant band of 50 kDa besides degraded fragments. Optimum expression of r-ZP3 was observed at 0.5 mM IPTG. Antisera generated in monkeys against synthetic peptides from the N-(23-45 aa residues) and C-(300-322 and 324-347 aa residues) termini of the deduced bonnet monkey precursor ZP3 sequence reacted with the r-ZP3 protein in ELISA. The r-ZP3 expressed in SG13009[pREP4] was purified on Ni-NTA resin under denaturing conditions and conjugated with diphtheria toxoid (DT). Immunization of a female rabbit and six female bonnet monkeys with the r-ZP3-DT conjugate generated antibodies reactive with r-ZP3 in ELISA. Rabbit r-ZP3 antiserum reacted with porcine ZP3 beta and bonnet r-ZP3 but failed to react with porcine ZP3 alpha in a Western blot. Moreover, antisera when tested by indirect immunofluorescence on bonnet monkey ovarian sections, showed positive fluorescence with zona pellucida. The availability of r-ZP3 will further help in evaluating its efficacy for fertility regulation and understanding the autoimmune oophoritis associated with ZP3 immunization in nonhuman primates.

When is your birthday? How about your best friend's birthday? If you think about it, you can probably name people who were born in every month of the year. Now, imagine if everyone's birthday fell during the same three months. That's what it is like for the bonnet macaque (Macaca radiata)! Bonnet macaques (named for the tuft of hair on their head, which looks like a hat) are a species of monkey that live in the Western Ghat mountains of India. These brown and white monkeys give birth seasonally, which means they always give birth during the same time of year.

In India, the rainy season is between July and September, and this is when plants grow the best and produce the most food. Bonnet macaques give birth between February and April. These monkeys nurse for about six or seven months, which means they are weaned (they stop nursing) and move to solid food during and just after the wet season when more food is available. Giving birth seasonally helps animals like the bonnet macaque ensure there will be enough food for their babies.

Bonnet macaques are able to mate after they are three years old, and females usually have their first baby at age four. Their gestation period, the period of time they carry the baby before giving birth, is six months. This long gestation period, plus the six or seven month period macaque babies nurse results in female macaques having a baby once a year or once every other year at most. Typically one bonnet macaque will have five babies during her 30-year lifespan.

This species lives in groups of about 30 individuals, and they have no problem living near humans. Have you heard of the temples in India that are full of monkeys? Bonnet macaques are one of these monkeys! They live in the protected temple areas and eat food left as offerings by temple visitors. They are also fed by tourists, and they dig through trash, go into gardens, and even enter houses in search of food.

In 2017, a study conducted under the leadership of Mewa Singh from the University of Mysore and Honnavalli N Kumara from Salim Ali Centre for Ornithology and Natural History in Coimbatore, published in the Journal PlosOne, showed that the distributional range of the Bonnet Monkeys is drastically declining. As per data published in the article, the population of Bonnet Monkeys declined by more than 65 per cent in 25 years. Between 2003 and 2015, the Bonnet monkey population decreased by more than 50 per cent.

The adult female bonnet monkey has been studied by: (a) cervical mucus weight, spinnbarkeit and ferning, (b) vaginal cytology, (c) sex skin changes, (d) uterine and ovarian size and consistency, and (e) urinary estrogen excretion. Daily measurements were made during 4 cycles, the ovulatory character of which was validated laparoscopically. Cervical mucus weight proved to be a valuable index which correlated closely with endogenous estrogen levels. Aspiration of the mucus also enabled vaginal cytology to be studied with the aid of an irrigation technique. The ovulatory cycle of the bonnet monkey is shown to be of the 4-week type, with a characteristic pattern of changes in these indices.

Pancreatic degenerative lesions of identical nature could be induced in bonnet monkeys (Macaca radiata) fed protein-deficient tapioca or cassava starch-based and cornstarch- based diets for 3 or 5 months. Marked to severe lobular and acinar cell atrophy in animals fed low-protein diets resembled human pancreatic atrophy resulting from protein deficiency. Animals fed low-protein, high-carbohydrate diets showed lesions akin to tropical chronic calculus pancreatopathy with diabetes mellitus. The pancreatic lesions comprised moderate to marked acinar cell atrophy, marked islet hyperplasia or nesidioblastosis with hypertrophy and mucoid metaplasia of the duct epithelium. Mucoid vasculopathy of the pancreatic artery and arterioles was observed in all animals given protein-deficient diets. It was enhanced in those given additional carbohydrate. Identical lesions were observed after using either source of carbohydrate. This excluded the role of toxic factors such as cyanoglycosides or heavy metals from a tapioca source in initiating the lesions. The study establishes monkey models for the spectrum of human pancreatic changes associated with malnutrition owing to protein deficiency and nutritional imbalance with low-protein, high-starch diets. The experiments demonstrate the dual effects of similar diets on the parenchyma and vasculature of the pancreas.

In order to apprehend the toxic effects of chromium, an occupational/environmental pollutant, on the epididymis, adult bonnet monkeys were exposed to chromium (VI) in their drinking water at concentrations of 100, 200 and 400 p.p.m. for a chronic period of 180 days. At the end of the experimental period, testicles and segments of epididymis from control and treated monkeys were subjected to light microscopic (resin-embedded semi-thin sections) and transmission electron microscopic analyses. Among the various changes undergone by the epididymal epithelium, the present paper describes the origin of two different kinds of microcanals, probably caused by ductal obstruction. The first type of microcanal, which appears to provide passage for spermatozoa to bypass the obstructed main duct, is comparable with the one already reported in carbendazim-treated efferent ductules of the rat. The second type of microcanal, which is novel, consisted of a lumen in the epithelium enclosed by four to five cells, which are either modified basal cells, principal cells or a hitherto unknown cell type. This novel type of microcanal is suggested to be a device to entrap the spermatozoa which reach the core of the epithelium and may be a mechanism to prevent extravasation of sperm so as to avoid an autoimmune response of spermatic granuloma formation. Thus, the present study has shown that chronic exposure to chromium (VI) through drinking water can produce pathological manifestations in the epididymal epithelium but the epididymis, being a versatile organ, is capable of overcoming such adverse situations through novel devices. 041b061a72


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